Dr. Pavlo Smytsnyuk is director of theInstitute of Ecumenical Studies at the Ukrainian Catholic University (UCU) in Lviv. On February 25th, one day after the beginning of the Russian invasion into Ukraine, he delivered a speech at the European Regional Pre-Assembly of the Conference of European Churches (CEC). His topic was the reaction of the different churches to the war. Particularly important is the position taken by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which is in unity with the Moscow Patriarchate. While Patriarch Cyril stands firmly by President Putin’s side and supports the war of aggression, Metropolitan Onuphry of Kiev, called the Russian invasion “a repetition of the sin of Cain, who out of jealousy killed his own brother.” This war also means a turning point for the churches – especially for the Russian Orthodox Church which must make a decision: Does it chain itself to the Putin regime and will it then also share the fate of the dictator? Or can it emancipate itself and find its way back to the Christian message of peace and humanity?